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Bottled Water Shockers

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November 22  |  Case Studies, food safety, News, Research, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Bottled Water: 10 Shockers “They” Don’t Want You to Know

American bottled watertap water? It’s considered some of the safest in the world. Yet countless Americans shun the stuff that flows from faucets and fountains and buy bottled water instead.
What’s really in the stuff and why does it cost 3,000 times more than tap?

Here Dr. Peter Gleick, the author of “Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water,” shares 10 of the most shocking facts about bottled water.
 

1. The Most Expensive Tap Water on Earth?
Bottled water comes only from pristine streams, right? Not necessarily.

In fact, nearly half of all bottled water is reprocessed tap water, sold at prices up to 3,000 times higher than consumers pay for tap water. And even before the additional processing, the water meets federal water-quality standards.
 

2. Crickets in Water and Nobody Told You?
Like any other products, water gets recalled, but more often than not you don’t hear much about it.

There have been more than 100 recalls of contaminated bottled water, often months after the products were delivered to store shelves, says Dr. Gleick, who worries that the public rarely gets the memo.

What sorts of contaminants have been found in bottled water?

Benzene, mold, sodium hydroxide, kerosene, styrene, algae, yeast, tetrahydrofuran, sand, fecal coliform and other bacteria, elevated chlorine, glass particles, sanitizer, and crickets, says Gleick.

Yes, crickets.
 

3. What Does the Government Really Test?
Think purity standards for bottled water are more stringent than those for tap water? Not so, says Dr. Gleick. Unlike tap water, which is regulated by the EPA, bottled water is regulated by the FDA – and, in addition to allowing for less frequent quality testing, the FDA doesn’t monitor some contaminants that may be in bottled water. What’s more, the FDA doesn’t insist that bottlers provide water quality reports to consumers.

“Our standards for protecting both tap water and bottled water ought to be stricter,” says Dr. Gleick. “But tap water is better regulated.”
 

4. Drowning in Bottled Waterempty-water-bottles3
Americans buy, consume, and throw away the equivalent of nearly 100 billion 12-ounce plastic bottles of water every year, according to Dr. Gleick’s calculations. That translates into roughly 300 bottles for every man, woman, and child. Laid end to end, these bottles would circle the earth more than 600 times – or reach from the earth to the moon and back 30 times.
 

5. Bottled Water Doesn’t Always Taste Better
In blind taste tests, consumers often cannot tell the difference between bottled and tap water, or between expensive bottled water and cheaper brands.

Different waters have different tastes, depending on the natural minerals found in them. But blind taste test after blind taste test has shown that bottled water is not consistently preferred over tap water.
 

6. Few Water Bottles Get Recycledempty-water-bottles dump
While most plastic bottles are “recyclable,” few are actually recycled. In fact, says Dr. Gleick, about seven of 10 plastic water bottles get incinerated, dumped into landfills – or left as litter.

Most plastic water bottles are made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This wonderful plastic (tasteless, clear, light, flexible, strong) could be recycled and made into new bottles, but it isn’t. Even the fraction of PET that is recycled ends up being “downcycled” into clothes, carpet, toys, and packaging materials.
 

7. Where Does it Really Come From?
Bottled water brand names can be misleading.water-bottle-stream

We get “Arctic Spring Water” from Florida, “Everest” water from Texas, “Glacier Mountain” water from Ohio and New Jersey, and “Yosemite” water from Los Angeles.

Says Dr. Gleick, more stringent rules about bottled water labels would require honest information on where the water comes from, how it has been treated or processed, and where the consumer can go to get up-to-date and independent information on water quality.
 

8. Are Bottles Replacing Fountains?
As bottled water sales have risen in the U.S., public water fountains have been disappearing.

In 2007, for example, the University of Central Florida opened its brand-new 45,000-plus seat football stadium, which had been built without a single water fountain, says Dr. Gleick. In the opening game at the stadium, 78 people had to be treated for heat-related illness.

After the debacle and a Facebook backlash, the stadium installed scores of fountains.

Modern water fountains can chill and filter water and be designed with taps to fill refillable bottles.
 

9. Bottled Water Isn’t Pushing Aside Soda
The bottled water industry says drinking bottled water is good because it’s leading us to cut back on our consumption of soft drinks. In fact, says Dr. Gleick, sales of bottled water and carbonated soft drink are both growing, at the expense of tap water.

Americans now drink more bottled water than milk.
 

10. It Takes Lots of Oil to Make Water Bottles
It takes the equivalent of 17 million barrels of oil just to make the plastic bottles for our bottled water consumption in the U.S., says Dr. Gleick, who worries that our demand for bottled water puts pressure on our energy resources and contributes to our dependence on foreign oil.
 

Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/bottled-water-10-shockers-they-dont-want-you-to-know/
 

Other information sources:
 

http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/qbw.asp
http://www.businessinsider.com/facts-bottled-water-industry-2011-10?op=1
http://www.forbes.com/sites/williampentland/2013/04/27/the-blindingly-obvious-truth-about-bottled-water/
http://www.rd.com/health/wellness/rethink-what-you-drink/
http://eatdrinkbetter.com/2011/09/29/the-dirty-truth-about-bottled-water/
http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/tapped/
http://www.tappedthemovie.com/

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Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

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November 9  |  Case Studies, News, Research, safe drinking water, water conservation, water preservation, water stewardship  |   Webmaster

Which is Safer?

Concerns over drugs, chemicals, and contaminants in tap water has prompted people all over the world to buy bottled water.  Recent studies have shown that 3 out of 10 households in Canada drink bottled water at home.

It’s estimated that 2.4 billion litres of bottled water were sold in Canada alone last year; about 68 litres per capita.  In fact, bottled water sales have surpassed milk and beer sales in North America, representing a $170 billion industry.

tap water bottled water

 

 

 

 

 

 

But is bottled water necessarily safer or healthier?  A recent investigation compiled by CBC News and reported by Kazi Stastna, provides a well-researched 7 point comparison of water quality, health risks, sustainability and impact on the environment.

At Puroxi, we maintain that proper treatment of an existing water source will provide safe, clean, clear, and nutritonal water, as well as many benefits, without affecting the quality and sustainability of our environment.

Please click here to view the CBC report.

 

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Providing Safe Water in a Disaster

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November 9  |  Editorial, Emergency Preparedness, News, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

by Mark Owen – founder CEO of Puralytics
 
Every year, our planet experiences an average of 500 natural disasters (Gutierrez, 2008). While some have minimal impact, others may disrupt our standard of living for days, weeks, or even months- restricting our access to food, medical care, and potable water sources. In a recent report by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, more than 32.4 million people were displaced worldwide by natural disasters in 2012 (Activity Report 2012, 2013). In an assessment of all global risks, water crises was the 3rdlargest risk, and the one identified as having the largest impact and the most likely to occur (Jennifer Blanke, 2014).
 

Picture3

Figure 1: Aid workers in Tacloban City, Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan bring SolarBags for their own use.

Disaster & Water

In a disaster, electricity is lost and water infrastructure is damaged. Fresh water sources might be polluted with all of the chemical toxins in the region as well as sewage and physical debris. First responders refer to the “Rule of Threes” – 3 minutes without air, 3 days without water, and 3 weeks without food/shelter and people will die. In recent disasters, like the Typhoon in the Philippines, the Tsunami in Japan, Hurricane Sandy and Katrina, and the earthquakes in Haiti, for instance, by Day 3 of the crisis, water became extremely valuable – the most expensive water on the planet – flown in by helicopters by emergency medical personnel and first responders, or supplied by desalination systems on battleships in the harbor. In many of these disasters, the water need continued for 3-18 months after the initial disaster had passed, and became the greatest risk of survival.

In the first days of such a crisis, bottled water is often flown in and distributed, both for the protection of the aid workers and emergency responders, and for those immediately displaced by the disaster. Stored or supplied bottled water runs out in a few days. Within the first week or so, it becomes impractical to supply water this way, and aid agencies switch to interim disinfection strategies like boiling water, chlorine or iodine tablets. These are able to partially disinfect the water and filters can remove some particulates, but they are not able to remove the chemical toxins that are also in the available water sources. While is it is widely recognized that water must be both disinfected and detoxified to be a safe water source, disinfection only solutions are acceptable for short periods as outbreaks are the largest short term risk.

These minimalist disinfection-only solutions were satisfactory for short term solutions with clear water sources, but as the disaster expands to weeks and months, the shortcomings of these methods become significant. Chemical toxins left in the water from the disaster, like petrochemicals, pesticides, cleaning supplies, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, etc. become a significant threat to health that could impact those affected for years to come. Unfortunately, most people who prepare for a disaster, and most government and aid organization that provide support after a disaster do not have equipment to detoxify the water from these chemical toxins. Water quality quickly becomes the biggest risk after the first days of the crisis, and may continue to be for weeks, months, or even years ahead.

The Puralytics SolarBag is unique in an emergency, because it can both disinfect and detoxify the water, providing safe water that meets US EPA and World Health Organization’s “highly protective” safe water guidelines as shown in Figure 2. Sunlight, even on a cloudy day, activates the nanotechnology coated mesh insert, activating 5 photochemical processes that purify water and reduce or destroy contaminants found in virtually all water sources.

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Figure 2: Comparing different water treatment technologies, only one is able to both disinfect and detoxify the water.

The SolarBag can treat up to 9 liters of water per day and can be reused over 500 times.
It can be stored for 7 years or more, and can be used by anyone, even children, to purify virtually any water source to make safe water. It is also very light to transport – while 1 gallon of water weighs about 8 lbs, 1 SolarBag which can make 500 gallons weighs only 4 ounces. Imagine if the aid organizations passed out SolarBags instead of bottled water or chlorine tablets in the early days of a disaster how many more people would be helped in a time of need.

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Figure 3: Planning for an emergency longer than 3 days requires being able to treat water to both disinfect and detoxify the water.

While this patented technology is relatively new and only mentioned in the most recent survival handbooks, it is widely available in stores and online sources. It has also been shipped to over 50 countries, including the recent disaster in the Philippines, being handed out through organizations like Medical Teams International, Relief International, Forward Edge International, and by the Red Cross. Recently Puralytics won the International Water Association’s Global Honour Award for long term use of the SolarBag in rural villages in Africa. For more information on the SolarBag, see the company’s website – www.puralytics.com

 

References

(2013). Activity Report 2012. Geneva: The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre.

Gutierrez, D. (2008). Natural Disasters Up More Than 400 Percent in Two Decades. Natural News.

Jennifer Blanke, e. a. (2014). Global Risk 2014, Ninth Edition. World Economic Forum.

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Water – “Nature’s Medicine”

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November 3  |  Editorial, Latest News, Nutrition, safe drinking water, water conservation, water preservation, water stewardship  |   Webmaster

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.

80% of all illness in the developing world comes from waterborne diseases.

So, the most valuable medicine we could provide is a simple, clean glass of water.

Our SolarBag can help. It offers individuals and households anywhere in the world, the world’s best detoxification and disinfection solution for pennies a day.

Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.[1]

Imprtance of Water

There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita.[2] However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.[3] A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.[4]   Approximately 70% of the fresh water used by humans goes to agriculture.[5]

References:
  1. “MDG Report 2008”. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  2. “Public Services”, Gapminder video
  3. Kulshreshtha, S.N (1998). “A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025”. Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184. doi:10.1023/A:1007957229865.
  4. “Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision-making” (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  5. Baroni, L.; Cenci, L.; Tettamanti, M.; Berati, M. (2007). “Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (2): 279–286. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602522. PMID 17035955.

 

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A Letter from the Editor

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October 27  |  climate change, Editorial, Emergency Preparedness, Latest News  |   Webmaster

The summer of 2013 will certainly go into the record books as one of the wettest and most costly summers in decades.  This freakish weather was at the complete opposite end of the spectrum from the summer of 2012; remember the devastating droughts only a year ago?

As Mother Nature rampaged across North America with heavy rains, which combined with the snow-pack run-off, the flash floods resulted in billions of dollars of damage and thousands and thousands of people left homeless or without power.  In fact, the amount that insurers pay out in damage claims due to severe weather has DOUBLED every 5 to 10 years since 1980.

As we head into fall and winter, there is nothing more certain than the uncertainty of the weather and what may lie in store for us.  With businesses, farms, municipalities, and families increasing reliant on dependable power, even a short term outage can mean a significant loss in productivity, availability of safe, clean drinking water, and safe, effective waste-water treatment.

As survival expert, Pat Cascio, says, “In a disaster, most people die from dehydration or water-borne illnesses”.  It is becoming increasingly apparent that preparation for any weather extremes or emergency situations has to become second-nature to us.  Could you and your family survive for a week without electricity, fresh water, food, or the ability to get out of your home?

One of our products, the SolarBag, is ideal for this kind of situation and should be an important component of any emergency kit.  Other important items include flashlights, canned food, propane cooker, candles, and of course charged cell phones. 

Let’s all learn from our experiences and life’s repeated lessons.  Let’s make 2013 the year that we took emergency preparedness seriously, for us, our families, our neighbors, and our communities.

 

 

 

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TAPPED – The Truth about the Bottled Water industry

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August 19  |  Case Studies, Editorial, Latest News, Nutrition, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Tapped – The Truth about the Bottled Water Industry

 

Is access to clean drinking water a basic human right, or a commodity that should be bought and sold like any other article of commerce?

I am sure that you have heard or read about the ills of the bottled water industry. From the BPA in the bottles to the mass amounts of plastic waste covering our earth and entering our water ways.

It is time we get all the facts and you will be amazed at how deep this problem really is.

“Tapped” is a Documentary film about the Bottled Water Industry.

In the film “Tapped” you will be educated on bottle water and all of it’s faults. It examines the role of the bottled water industry and its effects on our health, climate change, pollution, and our reliance on oil.

“Tapped” is an amazing documentary that presents an overwhelming amount of evidence which will change the way anyone thinks about bottled and municipal water.

tapped-poster

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From the producers of Who Killed the Electric Car? and I.O.U.S.A., Tapped takes a behind-the-scenes look into the unregulated and unseen world of the bottled water industry — an industry that aims to privatize and sell back the one resource that ought never to become a commodity: our water.

From the plastic production to the ocean in which so many of these bottles end up, this inspiring documentary trails the path of the bottled water industry and the communities which were the unwitting chips on the table. A powerful portrait of the lives affected by the bottled water industry, this revelatory film features those caught at the intersection of big business and the public’s right to water.

“Tapped” immediately breaks down the false notions surrounding the so called “benefits” of bottled water. It points out that 40% of bottled water is merely filtered municipal water – looking at you, Dasani and Aquafina. They also point out numerous times that it’s no safer than municipal water because the bottled water industry is largely unregulated whereas municipalities are held to strict testing under the EPA. But that’s just the tip of the bottled water-berg. Nearly the first half of the film documents the plight of a Maine town in which Nestle has moved in and taken over use of the city’s groundwater. This water source is governed differently than ponds, springs, rivers, etc. Essentially, whoever has the abilities to pump the most water, gets the most water. Nestle accesses the water for free, then bottles it and sells it for a profit. This leaves townsfolk unhappy as their own municipal water supply dwindles and must be transferred to another water well, resulting in service interruption which doesn’t seem to affect Nestle’s operation in the slightest. Water companies operate like this all over the country – moving into rural areas to perform “water mining,” wherein they extract water that is free and then sell it for billions of dollars.

I am from Maine and know this to be true. Nestle purchased Poland Spring Water. Poland Spring water was once actually drawn from a spring in Poland Maine, not any more. Many rural towns in Maine are being affected by the “water mining” referred to in the film.

If you have not seen “Tapped” it is time that you do.

Watch “Tapped” now!

http://vimeo.com/user7206487/tappedthemovie

 If this does not make you re-think your use of bottled water, nothing will!

Remember, before bottled water we found ways to get our thirst quenched. Watch an old Western movie or war movie and see your hero’s get a refreshing drink of water from a Canteen.

If your tap water gives you concerns, get yourself some type of water filtration system. Then find a re-useable water container that works best for you.

Just say “NO” to bottled water.

Hydrate responsibly!

GGATVnewlogo2Until next time…

follow me @thegogreenguy  @and be sure to like our facebook page

 

references for this post:

http://cinekatz.com/tapped-healthy-beverage-or-environmental-scourge/

http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/tapped/

http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/catalog/tap.html

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Another Ban on Water Fluoridation

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August 19  |  Case Studies, Latest News, Reports, Tests, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Israel Court Rules To Stop Water Fluoridation in 2014, Citing Health Concerns

It seems that almost the entire world is now realizing the health consequences of poisoning the water supply with fluoride. Most developed nations, including all of Japan and 97% of western Europe, do not fluoridate their water. Israel will now be added to that list in 2014. This begs the question as to when the west will wake up from their unscientific beliefs and embrace the irrefutable evidence that ingestion of fluoride is of no benefit and actually a detriment to human health.

Biological Effects of Sodium Fluoride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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For more information on this article visit: 

http://preventdisease.com/news/13/081113_Israel-Court-Rules-To-Stop-Water-Fluoridation-in-2014-Citing-Health-Concerns.shtml

http://healthimpactnews.com/2013/israel-court-rules-to-stop-water-fluoridation-in-2014-citing-health-concerns/

Additional information on our site about the health effects of water fluoridation can be found here: https://puroxi.com/reports-case-studies

We invite you to do your own research and make an informed decision:

http://www.fluorideaction.net/issues/health

http://preventdisease.com/news/09/022709_fluoride.shtml

http://www.fluoridealert.org/

 

 

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How Safe Is Your Water?

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August 30  |  Case Studies, Editorial, Latest News, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

The ongoing urban sprawl reaching further into former rural areas is a growing concern for water safety and security.  Run-off from farms, industry, tainted wells – and even cemeteries! – can result in unsafe levels of all kinds of contaminants, toxins, and carcinogens.

The most recent news item is about Simcoe, Ontario, who is facing an iminent crisis.  Link to the story is below, as well as for other news reports with similar concerns.  We have also included links to news about what steps some municipalities and regions are taking to ensure their water security and an ongoing supply of safe drinking water.

http://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/2012/08/28/simcoes-drinking-water-at-risk-due-to-nitrate-levels

http://www.ottawacitizen.com/health/Fracking+poses+risk+water+systems+research+suggests/7049011/story.html

http://www.enterprisenews.com/news/x186673917/Bishop-s-Landing-residents-want-Stoughton-to-pick-up-tab-for-water

http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/2012/07/2012-0823-perchloroethylene-in-water-color-blind

http://www.bayshorebroadcasting.ca/news_item.php?NewsID=49776

http://www.cottagecountrynow.ca/news/article/1485511–district-steps-toward-program-for-source-water-protection

 

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Importance of Water for Poultry

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May 7  |  Case Studies, Farm, News, Newsletters, Poultry, Reports, Tests, Research  |   Webmaster

We have many articles and studies on our website about the importance of water for health; both for us humans, as well as for our animals and livestock.  All life forms depend on water; in fact, after air/oxygen, it is the single most important factor to sustain life!  You can survive 3 minutes without air, 3 days without water, and 3 weeks without food. So it only stands to reason that the quantity, and especially quality of water, should be taken seriously.

However, water is not only a key ingredient to sustain life, it is also an important nutrient to maintain key bodily functions and the immune system. It is a critical agent to:

  • help dissolve minerals and nutrients making them accessible to the body
  • carry these nutrients and oxygen to all of the cells in the body

  Water also serves the body in many other critical areas, including:

  • protecting the body’s tissues and organs
  • moistening tissues in mouth, eyes, and nose
  • regulating body temperature
  • lubricating joints
  • helping to flush out waste products through kidneys and liver

In addition to the important factors listed above, water also plays a key role in preventing disease, for all humans and animals.

Following is a recent report by scientists at the University of Georgia, focusing on poultry.

The importance of water

Factors affecting water consumption, water quality and management tips are reviewed by Brian D. Fairchild and Casey W. Ritz, Extension Poultry Scientists at the University of Georgia.

 

Water is a critical nutrient that receives little attention until a problem arises. Not only should producers make an effort to provide water in adequate quantity, they should also know what is in the water that will be flowing through the water lines to be used in evaporative cooling systems and consumed by the birds.

Water Functions

Water is needed for bird consumption, reducing air temperature (including evaporative cooling pad and fogging systems) and facility sanitation. Broilers consume approximately 1.6 to 2.0 times more water than feed on a weight basis. Water is a critical nutrient in bird metabolism and nutrition. From a physiology perspective, water consumed by the bird is used for nutrient transportation, enzymatic and chemical reactions in the body, body temperature regulation and lubrication of joints and organs.

There is a strong relationship between feed and water consumption, therefore, water can be used to monitor flock performance. Many of the electronic controllers in poultry houses have the ability to monitor daily water consumption and have inputs for multiple water meters. This would allow a water meter to be installed separately on the lines supplying water to the front and rear of the house. Bird uniformity between the front and back of the house can be monitored using water consumption. Water consumption will be greater in the area of the house that has more birds. When birds are not distributed evenly between the front and back of the house it increases the competition for feed and water space. This, combined with the extra heat from excessive numbers of birds, can reduce bird performance.

water poultry figure 1

Figure 1. Water consumption in a tunnel ventilated broiler house

Factors Affecting Water Consumption

There are several factors that affect water consumption:

Bird age: Water consumption increases with age but decreases as a percentage of body weight.

Environmental temperature/heat stress: Birds consume more water as temperature increases. One of the main ways birds regulate body temperature is by evaporating water through the respiratory system during panting. As birds pant, water is lost and needs to be replaced in order to maintain body-water balance. Water consumption can double and even triple during periods of heat stress. Water consumption in broilers increases approximately seven per cent for each degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature.

A study at the University of Georgia examined the relationship of feed consumption to water consumption of seven consecutive flocks on a commercial broiler farm. As temperatures increased, the water consumed per pound of feed consumed also increased (Table 1).

 water poultry table 1

Water temperature: Several studies have examined the effects of providing cool water to birds during hot weather. In most of these studies, water temperature has improved the performance of broilers and layers. Any water temperature below the body temperature of the bird will be beneficial. The water consumed will help dissipate body heat and aid the bird in body temperature regulation. However, it is very difficult to cool the water significantly when moving the water hundreds of feet down a house.

Electrolytes: During periods of potential heat stress, many producers supplement drinking water with electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals that can be found in the blood and are important for normal cell function and growth. Electrolytes, as the name implies, help regulate nerve and muscle function by conducting electrical signals from nerves to muscles.

Electrolytes are also important for the acid-base balance of the blood and fluid retention. Some of the electrolytes found in blood plasma include sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chlorine (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3) and sulphate (SO4). The addition of the electrolytes not only replenishes those depleted during heat stress, but also stimulates water consumption. When the results of these are added together (electrolyte intake and increased water consumption), the mortality due to heat stress can be reduced.

Lighting programs: Light is another environmental factor that can influence bird water consumption. Birds will not drink if they are not eating and vice versa. During dark periods, the birds rest and as a result, they do not consume water. The exception is long dark periods. In dark periods exceeding eight hours, it is not unusual to see some water consumption register on the water meter. In operations that utilize lighting programs, two distinct water consumption peaks can be observed. The first peak is just after the lights come on (dawn) and the second is just prior to lights turning off (dusk).

The correlation of water consumption with feed intake and many environmental factors indicate its importance in bird metabolism and body function. Efforts should be made in all poultry operations to ensure that adequate and unlimited access to water is provided. Failure to do so will result in reduced feed intake, poor egg production, reduced growth and reduced feed efficiency.

water poultry figure 2

Figure 2. Lighting influences water consumption

Water Quality

While water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen molecules (H2O), it is a universal solvent and as a result can contain many minerals and compounds. The only sure way to get pure water is to use distillation or other treatment methods to remove dissolved minerals and compounds. This can be expensive considering the volume of water a typical broiler farm consisting of four or more houses would consume. Water treatment should be done based on the results of water quality analysis. While poultry drinking water does not have to be pure, heavily contaminated water is undesirable.

Water composition varies with geographical region as the nature of the geological makeup changes. Water contamination can occur if surface water drains into the well. All farms should submit water samples to a qualified laboratory for testing to establish a baseline for water quality. This will help producers determine if and what water treatment might be warranted.

Water quality should be of concern to all poultry operations. Poor water quality may interfere with digestion and subsequent bird performance. The effectiveness of vaccines and medications administered through the water lines could be reduced when water quality is poor. Water contaminants could create equipment problems that would either restrict the amount of water available for consumption or the effectiveness of the evaporative cooling and fogging systems. Reduced water consumption or cooling capacity may have detrimental effects on both growth and reproduction. Poor water quality could also result in leaky water nipples inside the house, which will wet litter and lead to increased ammonia production. Poor litter quality and high ammonia can result in reduced performance and livability.

Standards for water quality should include factors that affect taste, solid buildup within water systems and toxicity. Factors that should be observed for poultry production include, but are not limited to those listed in Tables 2 and 3.

water poultry table 2

Many of the water quality standards for poultry drinking water were originally developed from those for human drinking water. Few of the standards recommended today are based on research utilizing broiler or layers.

Recently, a series of studies has been conducted examining the effects of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nitrates (NO3) and pH levels in drinking water on poultry performance. The results of these studies have found that very high levels of Fe, Mn and NO3 do not impact broiler health. In those studies no differences in performance were noted due to 600ppm of Fe, 600ppm of NO3 and 20ppm of Mn.

It should be noted that the water lines were thoroughly flushed between studies and that particulates that result from high Fe and Mn levels can lead to equipment problems such as leaky nipples and clogged fogging nozzles. Broiler performance is more likely to be affected by improper equipment function rather than bird health due to high concentrations of these substances. Poor water quality can lead to increased microbial growth (such as iron bacteria) and biofilm build-up.

water poultry table 3 Water Management Tips

Conduct water tests

Each farm should have its well water tested. Water quality can change during periods of heavy rain or drought and additional water tests during these periods will ensure that water lines continue to deliver adequate water volume for both the birds and the cooling systems. County agents can provide more information on the tests available, provide information on fees for testing and submit samples to the Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratory at the University of Georgia.

Change filters regularly

Sediment and other particulates can cause leaky water nipples that can have negative effects on litter quality. Clogged filters restrict water flow to the drinker and cooling systems. In some cases, simple cartridge filters may not be adequate, such as for water with high iron. In those cases, other water treatments will need to be considered.

Flush water lines regularly

A high–pressure flush should be performed on water lines between each flock and after adding supplements through the medicator, e.g. vaccines, medications, vitamins, electrolytes, etc.

Plan ahead before treating water

Before implementing water treatment or sanitation programs, consult your county agent to ensure that contaminants in your water will not react negatively and cause the water system to become clogged.

References

Batal, A.B., B.D. Fairchild, C.W. Ritz and P.F. Vendrell, 2005. The effect of water manganese on broiler growth performance. Poultry Sci. 84 (Suppl. 1.).

Bell, D.B., 2002. Consumption and quality of water. In: Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. D.D. Bell and W.D. Weaver, eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA. p411-430.

Carter, T.A. and R.E. Sneed, 1987. Drinking water quality for poultry. PS&T Guide No. 42, Extension Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Dozier, D.A., M. Czarick, M.P. Lacy, and B.D. Fairchild, 2002. Monitoring water consumption on commercial broiler farms: Evaluation tool to assess flock performance. Poultry Sci. 80:154 (Suppl. 1.).

Fairchild, B.D., A.B. Batal, C.W. Ritz and P.F. Vendrell, 2006. Effect of drinking water iron concentration on broiler performance. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 15:511-517.

May, J.D., B.D. Lott and J.D. Simmons, 1997. Water consumption by broilers in high cyclic temperatures: Bell versus nipple waterers. Poultry Sci. 76:944-947.

Pesti, G.M., S.V. Amato and L.R. Minear, 1985. Water consumption of broiler chickens under commercial conditions. Poultry Sci. 64:803-808.

Schwartz, D.L. Water Quality. VSE, 81c., Penn. State Univ. (mimeographed)

Waggoner, R., R. Good and R. Good, 1984. Water Quality and Poultry Performance. Proceedings AVMA Annual Conference, July.

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Contaminated Water

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March 26  |  Immune System, Latest News, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Washington, Mar 24 (ANI)

Recent widespread news coverage indicated the success of a United Nations’ goal of significantly improving access to safe drinking water around the world.

But while major progress has been made, a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggests that far greater challenges persist than headline statistics suggested.

Earlier this month (March 6), UNICEF and the World Health Organization issued a report stating that the world had met the U.N.’s Millennium Development Goal target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water, well in advance of a deadline.

That goal aimed to boost access to improved drinking water sources, such as piped supplies and protected wells, between 1990 and 2015.

However, the new UNC study estimates that 1.8 billion people – 28 percent of the world’s population – used unsafe water in 2010.

That figure is 1 billion more than the official report’s estimate that 783 million people (11 percent of the globe) use water from what are classified as unimproved sources by WHO and UNICEF’s Joint Monitoring Program.

The new study’s lead author, Jamie Bartram, Ph.D., professor of environmental sciences and engineering in the Gillings School of Global Public Health, said the WHO/UNICEF report highlighted the progress that could be achieved through concerted international action, but left outstanding the needs of millions of people who only have access to dangerous contaminated drinking water.

“If you look at the water people use and ask ‘Is this contaminated?’ instead of ‘Is this water from a protected source?’, the world would still be well short of meeting the Millennium Development Goal target,” said Bartram, also director of the Water Institute at UNC.

“In many parts of the world, water from ‘improved sources’ – like protected village wells and springs – is likely to be microbiologically or chemically contaminated, either at the source or by the time people drink it,” he said.

“In developing countries, whether you live in small village or a big city, safe water can be hard to come by: pipes and taps break, clean springs and wells become contaminated or people have to carry or store water in potentially unsanitary ways.”

Bartram and colleagues analyzed water quality and sanitary risk information from an earlier study of five countries, and extrapolated the data to estimate global figures.

Their study suggested that of the 5.8 billion people using piped or “other improved” water sources in 2010, 1 billion probably received faecally contaminated water.

Adding that tally to the nearly 800 million people who collect water from unimproved sources would mean 1.8 billion people are drinking unsafe water.

Furthermore, Bartram and colleagues estimated that another 1.2 billion people got water from sources that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination.

“All told, we estimate 3 billion people don’t have access to safe water, if you use a more stringent definition that includes both actual water quality and sanitary risks,” Bartram said.

He highlighted that the recent WHO/UNICEF announcement confirmed how much had been achieved since the Millennium Development Goals were adopted in 2000, and that this progress should lead to a progressive shift towards ensuring that every home, workplace and school has reliable water supplies that are – and remain – safe.

However, he said the magnitude of the UNC study’s estimates and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to better understanding and managing drinking water safety.

The study has been published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. (ANI)

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