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water report

Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

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November 9  |  Case Studies, News, Research, safe drinking water, water conservation, water preservation, water stewardship  |   Webmaster

Which is Safer?

Concerns over drugs, chemicals, and contaminants in tap water has prompted people all over the world to buy bottled water.  Recent studies have shown that 3 out of 10 households in Canada drink bottled water at home.

It’s estimated that 2.4 billion litres of bottled water were sold in Canada alone last year; about 68 litres per capita.  In fact, bottled water sales have surpassed milk and beer sales in North America, representing a $170 billion industry.

tap water bottled water

 

 

 

 

 

 

But is bottled water necessarily safer or healthier?  A recent investigation compiled by CBC News and reported by Kazi Stastna, provides a well-researched 7 point comparison of water quality, health risks, sustainability and impact on the environment.

At Puroxi, we maintain that proper treatment of an existing water source will provide safe, clean, clear, and nutritonal water, as well as many benefits, without affecting the quality and sustainability of our environment.

Please click here to view the CBC report.

 

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Climate Change | Water Shortage | Agriculture

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December 29  |  climate change, crops, Editorial, Farm, global warming, Nutrition, Opinion, Research, safe drinking water, water conservation, water preservation, water stewardship  |   Webmaster

While the pundits and partisan experts continue to argue over the validity of global warming, there is little doubt that climate change is a reality.  The rapidly increasing changes in our climate are impacting our water supply.

Scientists at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) have calculated how much of this essential resource the world risks losing to the effects of climate change.  Droughts will become more widespread and wildfires are expected to get bigger, longer and smokier by 2050. The growing world population and its increase in water consumption are also straining fresh water resources.  Water sources are melting and drying out.   

37 nations already make do with the bare minimum in water resources, according to experts at the World Resources Institute (WRI), a co-author of the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas.  Massive investments in efficient water management are necessary to counter the effects of water scarcity.

 Agriculture is the world’s largest consumer of water

In times of rising food prices, the agricultural sector has become more interesting for investors. Asian companies, particularly in China, as well as their European counterparts are buying up large swaths of land in Africa to grow food products. They, too, have a vested interest in good harvests and are keen on investment in any aspect of agriculture that offers a significant opportunity to reduce its demand for water. However, technical solutions to save water in agriculture will play only a small role due to the high costs.

Changes in the world’s agriculture and eating habits need to be re-examined

Hunger follows on the heels of water scarcity

Agriculture must change in order to counter dwindling water resources. Climate researchers warn of an increased risk of hunger, in particular in poorer countries, with farmers trying to adapt to cycles of recurring drought and extreme, torrential rains.  One way to counter these extremes is through organic farming, which strengthens the capacity of the soil to absorb water, to enrich it and later deliver it again to the plants.

Organic farming could also limit the spread of diseases and pests without farmers having to resort to pesticides.  Crop rotation and diversity would make it more difficult for diseases and crop destroyers to infest cultivated areas.  This was common practice for many generations before industrial farming began.

In addition, consumers will have to alter their habits in ways that include eating less meat and seeking out crops more attuned to local conditions.  In dry regions of the world, farmers could plant the cereal crop millet, which needs significantly less water than corn.

Another climate-friendly measure: growers and consumers should be located closer to one another to decrease theamount of shipments and transports.

Such changes would help feed a constantly growing global population.  Even today, the world produces enough food for 14 billion people.

We don’t need to produce more foodwhat we need is better quality and more diversity.

 

Source:  http://www.dw.de/climate-change-fuels-water-scarcity-and-hunger/a-17325128

 

 

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Another Ban on Water Fluoridation

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August 19  |  Case Studies, Latest News, Reports, Tests, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Israel Court Rules To Stop Water Fluoridation in 2014, Citing Health Concerns

It seems that almost the entire world is now realizing the health consequences of poisoning the water supply with fluoride. Most developed nations, including all of Japan and 97% of western Europe, do not fluoridate their water. Israel will now be added to that list in 2014. This begs the question as to when the west will wake up from their unscientific beliefs and embrace the irrefutable evidence that ingestion of fluoride is of no benefit and actually a detriment to human health.

Biological Effects of Sodium Fluoride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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For more information on this article visit: 

http://preventdisease.com/news/13/081113_Israel-Court-Rules-To-Stop-Water-Fluoridation-in-2014-Citing-Health-Concerns.shtml

http://healthimpactnews.com/2013/israel-court-rules-to-stop-water-fluoridation-in-2014-citing-health-concerns/

Additional information on our site about the health effects of water fluoridation can be found here: http://www.puroxi.com/reports-case-studies

We invite you to do your own research and make an informed decision:

http://www.fluorideaction.net/issues/health

http://preventdisease.com/news/09/022709_fluoride.shtml

http://www.fluoridealert.org/

 

 

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Press Release

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June 9  |  Latest News, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

Press Release  – Canadian Water Softeners

 For immediate release                                                  April 10, 2012

 

Water softener facts website educates homeowners on soft water

Waterloo Region – With the presence of hard water in Grand River Watershed communities, many local households choose to install a water softener. 

In an effort to educate residents in choosing the right softener for their home, the Region of Waterloo, in partnership with the City of Guelph, has launched a new website,www.watersoftenerfacts.ca.

The site features the results of independent testing completed by the municipal partners to measure the efficiency of various water softeners in the marketplace, and provides residents with key items they should look for when choosing a softener, including the amount of salt and water consumed by softener type and yearly operating costs.

“Selecting a home water softener can be an onerous task. To best support inquiries received from local residents, the Water Softener Facts website was developed as a consolidated information source on home softener technologies and their operation,” said Wayne Galliher, the City of Guelph’s water conservation project manager. “When a homeowner chooses a softener that uses less salt and water, they are helping to conserve and protect our precious water resources while lowering their household expenses at the same time.”

Steve Gombos, water efficiency manager with the Region of Waterloo, added, “The softener testing we are conducting is unique to Canada and we feel it best informs residents with the proper information required to have their homes running as efficiently as possible.”

Visitors to the website, which will be updated regularly as new test results become available, can also reference water hardness maps of the region and city to learn the water hardness in their neighbourhood to ensure their softener is programmed correctly to increase its efficiency. In addition, the site provides access to a wealth of information about how softeners work, softener technology options, and other topics related to soft water.

The Region and the City supply residents with some of the hardest water in Canada due to the groundwater sources. Studies have found that 72 per cent of households in Waterloo Region have water softeners, accounting for the consumption of 2.7 million cubic metres of regeneration water and 44,000 tonnes of salt each year. 

For more information, please contact:

Wayne Galliher, Water Conservation Project Manager, City of Guelph 519-837-5627, x 2106

Steve Gombos, Manager, Water Efficiency, Region of Waterloo, 519-575-4503

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Importance of Water for Poultry

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May 7  |  Case Studies, Farm, News, Newsletters, Poultry, Reports, Tests, Research  |   Webmaster

We have many articles and studies on our website about the importance of water for health; both for us humans, as well as for our animals and livestock.  All life forms depend on water; in fact, after air/oxygen, it is the single most important factor to sustain life!  You can survive 3 minutes without air, 3 days without water, and 3 weeks without food. So it only stands to reason that the quantity, and especially quality of water, should be taken seriously.

However, water is not only a key ingredient to sustain life, it is also an important nutrient to maintain key bodily functions and the immune system. It is a critical agent to:

  • help dissolve minerals and nutrients making them accessible to the body
  • carry these nutrients and oxygen to all of the cells in the body

  Water also serves the body in many other critical areas, including:

  • protecting the body’s tissues and organs
  • moistening tissues in mouth, eyes, and nose
  • regulating body temperature
  • lubricating joints
  • helping to flush out waste products through kidneys and liver

In addition to the important factors listed above, water also plays a key role in preventing disease, for all humans and animals.

Following is a recent report by scientists at the University of Georgia, focusing on poultry.

The importance of water

Factors affecting water consumption, water quality and management tips are reviewed by Brian D. Fairchild and Casey W. Ritz, Extension Poultry Scientists at the University of Georgia.

 

Water is a critical nutrient that receives little attention until a problem arises. Not only should producers make an effort to provide water in adequate quantity, they should also know what is in the water that will be flowing through the water lines to be used in evaporative cooling systems and consumed by the birds.

Water Functions

Water is needed for bird consumption, reducing air temperature (including evaporative cooling pad and fogging systems) and facility sanitation. Broilers consume approximately 1.6 to 2.0 times more water than feed on a weight basis. Water is a critical nutrient in bird metabolism and nutrition. From a physiology perspective, water consumed by the bird is used for nutrient transportation, enzymatic and chemical reactions in the body, body temperature regulation and lubrication of joints and organs.

There is a strong relationship between feed and water consumption, therefore, water can be used to monitor flock performance. Many of the electronic controllers in poultry houses have the ability to monitor daily water consumption and have inputs for multiple water meters. This would allow a water meter to be installed separately on the lines supplying water to the front and rear of the house. Bird uniformity between the front and back of the house can be monitored using water consumption. Water consumption will be greater in the area of the house that has more birds. When birds are not distributed evenly between the front and back of the house it increases the competition for feed and water space. This, combined with the extra heat from excessive numbers of birds, can reduce bird performance.

water poultry figure 1

Figure 1. Water consumption in a tunnel ventilated broiler house

Factors Affecting Water Consumption

There are several factors that affect water consumption:

Bird age: Water consumption increases with age but decreases as a percentage of body weight.

Environmental temperature/heat stress: Birds consume more water as temperature increases. One of the main ways birds regulate body temperature is by evaporating water through the respiratory system during panting. As birds pant, water is lost and needs to be replaced in order to maintain body-water balance. Water consumption can double and even triple during periods of heat stress. Water consumption in broilers increases approximately seven per cent for each degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature.

A study at the University of Georgia examined the relationship of feed consumption to water consumption of seven consecutive flocks on a commercial broiler farm. As temperatures increased, the water consumed per pound of feed consumed also increased (Table 1).

 water poultry table 1

Water temperature: Several studies have examined the effects of providing cool water to birds during hot weather. In most of these studies, water temperature has improved the performance of broilers and layers. Any water temperature below the body temperature of the bird will be beneficial. The water consumed will help dissipate body heat and aid the bird in body temperature regulation. However, it is very difficult to cool the water significantly when moving the water hundreds of feet down a house.

Electrolytes: During periods of potential heat stress, many producers supplement drinking water with electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals that can be found in the blood and are important for normal cell function and growth. Electrolytes, as the name implies, help regulate nerve and muscle function by conducting electrical signals from nerves to muscles.

Electrolytes are also important for the acid-base balance of the blood and fluid retention. Some of the electrolytes found in blood plasma include sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chlorine (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3) and sulphate (SO4). The addition of the electrolytes not only replenishes those depleted during heat stress, but also stimulates water consumption. When the results of these are added together (electrolyte intake and increased water consumption), the mortality due to heat stress can be reduced.

Lighting programs: Light is another environmental factor that can influence bird water consumption. Birds will not drink if they are not eating and vice versa. During dark periods, the birds rest and as a result, they do not consume water. The exception is long dark periods. In dark periods exceeding eight hours, it is not unusual to see some water consumption register on the water meter. In operations that utilize lighting programs, two distinct water consumption peaks can be observed. The first peak is just after the lights come on (dawn) and the second is just prior to lights turning off (dusk).

The correlation of water consumption with feed intake and many environmental factors indicate its importance in bird metabolism and body function. Efforts should be made in all poultry operations to ensure that adequate and unlimited access to water is provided. Failure to do so will result in reduced feed intake, poor egg production, reduced growth and reduced feed efficiency.

water poultry figure 2

Figure 2. Lighting influences water consumption

Water Quality

While water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen molecules (H2O), it is a universal solvent and as a result can contain many minerals and compounds. The only sure way to get pure water is to use distillation or other treatment methods to remove dissolved minerals and compounds. This can be expensive considering the volume of water a typical broiler farm consisting of four or more houses would consume. Water treatment should be done based on the results of water quality analysis. While poultry drinking water does not have to be pure, heavily contaminated water is undesirable.

Water composition varies with geographical region as the nature of the geological makeup changes. Water contamination can occur if surface water drains into the well. All farms should submit water samples to a qualified laboratory for testing to establish a baseline for water quality. This will help producers determine if and what water treatment might be warranted.

Water quality should be of concern to all poultry operations. Poor water quality may interfere with digestion and subsequent bird performance. The effectiveness of vaccines and medications administered through the water lines could be reduced when water quality is poor. Water contaminants could create equipment problems that would either restrict the amount of water available for consumption or the effectiveness of the evaporative cooling and fogging systems. Reduced water consumption or cooling capacity may have detrimental effects on both growth and reproduction. Poor water quality could also result in leaky water nipples inside the house, which will wet litter and lead to increased ammonia production. Poor litter quality and high ammonia can result in reduced performance and livability.

Standards for water quality should include factors that affect taste, solid buildup within water systems and toxicity. Factors that should be observed for poultry production include, but are not limited to those listed in Tables 2 and 3.

water poultry table 2

Many of the water quality standards for poultry drinking water were originally developed from those for human drinking water. Few of the standards recommended today are based on research utilizing broiler or layers.

Recently, a series of studies has been conducted examining the effects of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nitrates (NO3) and pH levels in drinking water on poultry performance. The results of these studies have found that very high levels of Fe, Mn and NO3 do not impact broiler health. In those studies no differences in performance were noted due to 600ppm of Fe, 600ppm of NO3 and 20ppm of Mn.

It should be noted that the water lines were thoroughly flushed between studies and that particulates that result from high Fe and Mn levels can lead to equipment problems such as leaky nipples and clogged fogging nozzles. Broiler performance is more likely to be affected by improper equipment function rather than bird health due to high concentrations of these substances. Poor water quality can lead to increased microbial growth (such as iron bacteria) and biofilm build-up.

water poultry table 3 Water Management Tips

Conduct water tests

Each farm should have its well water tested. Water quality can change during periods of heavy rain or drought and additional water tests during these periods will ensure that water lines continue to deliver adequate water volume for both the birds and the cooling systems. County agents can provide more information on the tests available, provide information on fees for testing and submit samples to the Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratory at the University of Georgia.

Change filters regularly

Sediment and other particulates can cause leaky water nipples that can have negative effects on litter quality. Clogged filters restrict water flow to the drinker and cooling systems. In some cases, simple cartridge filters may not be adequate, such as for water with high iron. In those cases, other water treatments will need to be considered.

Flush water lines regularly

A high–pressure flush should be performed on water lines between each flock and after adding supplements through the medicator, e.g. vaccines, medications, vitamins, electrolytes, etc.

Plan ahead before treating water

Before implementing water treatment or sanitation programs, consult your county agent to ensure that contaminants in your water will not react negatively and cause the water system to become clogged.

References

Batal, A.B., B.D. Fairchild, C.W. Ritz and P.F. Vendrell, 2005. The effect of water manganese on broiler growth performance. Poultry Sci. 84 (Suppl. 1.).

Bell, D.B., 2002. Consumption and quality of water. In: Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. D.D. Bell and W.D. Weaver, eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA. p411-430.

Carter, T.A. and R.E. Sneed, 1987. Drinking water quality for poultry. PS&T Guide No. 42, Extension Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Dozier, D.A., M. Czarick, M.P. Lacy, and B.D. Fairchild, 2002. Monitoring water consumption on commercial broiler farms: Evaluation tool to assess flock performance. Poultry Sci. 80:154 (Suppl. 1.).

Fairchild, B.D., A.B. Batal, C.W. Ritz and P.F. Vendrell, 2006. Effect of drinking water iron concentration on broiler performance. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 15:511-517.

May, J.D., B.D. Lott and J.D. Simmons, 1997. Water consumption by broilers in high cyclic temperatures: Bell versus nipple waterers. Poultry Sci. 76:944-947.

Pesti, G.M., S.V. Amato and L.R. Minear, 1985. Water consumption of broiler chickens under commercial conditions. Poultry Sci. 64:803-808.

Schwartz, D.L. Water Quality. VSE, 81c., Penn. State Univ. (mimeographed)

Waggoner, R., R. Good and R. Good, 1984. Water Quality and Poultry Performance. Proceedings AVMA Annual Conference, July.

For more information about water quality studies, reports, resources, and solutions, please contact us or your local OxyBlast dealer:  CONTACT PAGE


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The People behind the Water Video

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May 5  |  Case Studies, Latest News, Research, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

  Learn about the fascinating journey that water takes from the source, to our taps, and back to the source. This story is told through the eyes of BC Water & Waste Association members: the people who work to bring us clean, safe drinking water and protect the environment.   Please share this video with others in your workplace, classroom or home. You could even display it at an event during Drinking Water Week!  

The People Behind the Water Video

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BCWW Drinking Water Week

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May 5  |  Latest News, safe drinking water  |   Webmaster

BC Water & Waste Association invites you to Celebrate Drinking Water Week, May 13 – 19, 2012

Get to know your H2O.   http://www.drinkingwaterweek.org/

 

About Drinking Water Week

When you turn on your tap and clean, safe water comes out…   Do you ever stop to think about how it gets there and where it goes when you’re finished with it? BC Water & Waste Association and the Province of BC have proclaimed Drinking Water Week from May 13 – 19, 2012. We invite you to celebrate this exciting week by taking time to learn more about your water and how you can protect and conserve it.  Here in BC we often take our drinking water for granted, but it’s a finite resource – there is no such thing as ‘new’ water! Although the expenses may not be apparent, significant costs and energy are required to treat our drinking water to be clean and safe, deliver it to our taps, and manage the wastewater that goes down the drain. The demand for water is also increasing due to population growth, industry needs and climate change.   Our water in BC is of the highest quality – let’s celebrate it!  

British Columbia’s natural resources combined with its dedicated water and wastewater professionals allow us to enjoy high quality drinking water that is clean and safe.   To help raise awareness of our water, our water systems, and the many people who make it accessible for us, we have created a variety of educational activities and resources. We invite you to use these resources and pass them along to others. Many communities will also be holding tours of their local watersheds and treatment plants, and we encourage you to take the time to visit them. During Drinking Water Week 2012, we challenge you to ‘Get to Know Your H2O!’

 

Take the Challenge!

Take part in the BC Community Water Challenge! By pledging to take simple water wise actions in your daily life, you will be entered in a draw for our grand prize: a roundtrip for two on Helijet’s scheduled helicopter service between Victoria and Vancouver, and a 2-night stay plus dinner for two at the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel in Vancouver. Create your pledge now!

Visit the website and check out all the events and great resources: http://www.drinkingwaterweek.org/resources

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U.N. Water Report

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April 17  |  Latest News  |   Webmaster

 WHO, U.N.-Water Report Examines Access To Safe Drinking Water, Improved Sanitation

Monday, April 16, 2012

“Nearly 780 million people are deprived of safe drinking water — and 2.5 billion lack access to improved sanitation — all because governments aren’t spending scarce resources wisely, according to a joint report [.pdf] of the World Health Organization and U.N.-Water,” VOA News reports. Though “more than two billion people gained access to safe drinking water and 1.8 billion gained access to improved sanitation” between 1990 and 2010, billions of people still lack these basic services, the report noted, according to the news service.

“The data, collected from 74 developing nations, show countries suffering from a chronic lack of technicians, skilled labor and staff to operate and maintain sanitation and drinking water infrastructure,” VOA writes, adding, “The report says the total amount given in development aid for sanitation and drinking water increased by three percent — to $7.8 billion — from 2008 to 2010, but only half of that amount is allocated to regions where 70 percent of those lacking these services actually live: sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and South-Eastern Asia” (Schlein, 4/12). According to a U.N.-Water press release, “Nearly 80 percent of countries recognize the right to water, and just over half of them the right to sanitation. Realizing the rights to water and sanitation may help targeting resources to unserved population and avoid discrimination in the provision of [water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)] services” (4/12).

 

For the full report (pdf), click here

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